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J Public Health Dent. 2013 Winter;73(1):74-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00355.x. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

Dental health of homeless adults in Toronto, Canada.

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Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.



This study aimed to assess the oral health status of the Toronto adult homeless population; to learn how they perceive their own oral health; and to correlate the presence of oral disease with length of homelessness and unemployment.


This cross-sectional descriptive study collected data from 191 homeless adults who were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample at 18 shelters. A questionnaire and clinical oral examination were conducted with participants.


The mean Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth (DMFT) score of the subjects was 14.4 (SD = 8.1). Only 32% of them had visited a dentist during the last year, 75% believed that they had untreated dental conditions, and 40% had their last dental visit for emergency care. The clinical oral examination observed that 88% needed fillings, 70% periodontal, 60% prosthodontic, and 40% emergency treatment.


Homeless adults in Toronto have poor oral health, significant oral health treatment needs, and a lack of access to dental care.

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