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Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;986:171-87. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7_9.

TGF beta signaling and its role in glioma pathogenesis.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Transcription Regulation, Department of Cell Biology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 3 Pasteur St., PL 02-093, Warsaw, Poland. bozenakk@nencki.gov.pl

Abstract

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation and survival/or apoptosis of many cells, including glioma cells. TGF-β acts via specific receptors activating multiple intracellular pathways resulting in phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smad2/3 proteins that associate with the common mediator, Smad4. Such complex translocates to the nucleus, binds to DNA and regulates transcription of many genes. Furthermore, TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is a component of TGF-β signaling and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Negative regulation of TGF-β/Smad signaling may occur through the inhibitory Smad6/7. Increased expression of TGF-β1-3 correlates with a degree of malignancy of human gliomas. TGF-β may contribute to tumor pathogenesis by direct support of tumor growth, self-renewal of glioma initiating stem cells and inhibiting of anti-tumor immunity. TGF-β1,2 stimulate expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor as well as the plasminogen activator inhibitor and some metalloproteinases that are involved in vascular remodeling, angiogenesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Inhibitors of TGF-β signaling reduce viability and invasion of gliomas in animal models and show promises as novel, potential anti-tumor therapeutics.

PMID:
22879069
DOI:
10.1007/978-94-007-4719-7_9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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