Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2012 Oct;14(5):438-50. doi: 10.1007/s11940-012-0187-4.

Sleep and violence.

Author information

  • 1Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Neurosciences, University of Turin, Ospedale San Giovanni Battista - Molinette, Via Cherasco 15, 10126, Torino, Italy,



Treatment of violent behaviors in sleep depends on the underlying condition and a correct identification of the causative disorder is mandatory. After eliminating possible precipitating factors, pharmacological treatment is often required to control violent sleep behaviors. Although no drugs are specifically approved for the treatment of parasomnias and placebo-controlled trials are lacking in these patient populations, clonazepam is considered the drug of choice in the management of both Non-REM and REM parasomnias. Benzodiazepines may cause unwanted side effects especially in older individuals and tolerance is sometime observed. Melatonin and pramipexole may represent alternative options in REM sleep behavior disorder. Hypnosis therapy may be considered in arousal disorders when pharmacological treatment is contraindicated or ineffective. Management of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy include a first-step pharmacological approach with antiepileptic drugs (eg, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine or other drugs effective on partial seizures), but surgical options may be considered in drug refractory patients. The published evidence for the efficacy of various treatments relies mostly upon case series or case reports.

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer
    Loading ...
    Support Center