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J Endocrinol. 2012 Nov;215(2):221-37. doi: 10.1530/JOE-12-0238. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Regulation of the androgen receptor by post-translational modifications.

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Solid Tumour Target Discovery Group, The Medical School, Newcastle Cancer Centre at the Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK.


The androgen receptor (AR) is a key molecule in prostate cancer and Kennedy's disease. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of this steroid receptor is important in the development of potential therapies for these diseases. One layer of AR regulation is provided by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, sumoylation, ubiquitination and methylation. While these modifications have mostly been studied as individual events, it is becoming clear that these modifications can functionally interact with each other in a signalling pathway. In this review, the effects of all modifications are described with a focus on interplay between them and the functional consequences for the AR.

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