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Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol. 2012 Aug;Chapter 2:Unit2D.12. doi: 10.1002/9780470151808.sc02d12s22.

Scalable production of transplantable dopaminergic neurons from hESCs and iPSCs in xeno-free defined conditions.

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  • 1Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, California, USA.


Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are potentially an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy and personalized medicine. Before hESC- and iPSC-based therapy can be moved from bench to bedside, however, it is essential to establish protocols for generating therapeutically relevant cells, like dopaminergic neurons in defined conditions that are suitable for scalable good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant protocols. Here, the derivation and differentiation of functional dopaminergic neurons from hESCs and iPSCs under xeno-free defined conditions are described. These protocols have been validated in multiple hESC and iPSC lines.

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