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Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2010 Aug;2(4):201-20. doi: 10.1177/1759720X10372551.

Milnacipran: a selective serotonin and norepinephrine dual reuptake inhibitor for the management of fibromyalgia.

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Forest Research Institute, Harborside Financial Center, Plaza V, Jersey City, NJ 07311, USA.


Milnacipran, a serotonin and norepinephrfrine reuptake inhibitor with preferential inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake over serotonin, is approved in the United States for the management of fibromyalgia. Owing to its effects on norepinephrine and serotonin, as well as its lack of activity at other receptor systems, it was hypothesized that milnacipran would provide improvements in pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms without some of the unpleasant side effects associated with other medications historically used for treating fibromyalgia. The clinical safety and efficacy of milnacipran 100 and 200 mg/day in individuals with fibromyalgia has been investigated in four large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and three long-term extension studies. The clinical studies used composite responder analyses to identify the proportion of individual patients reporting simultaneous and clinically significant improvements in pain, global status, and physical function, in addition to assessing improvement in various symptom domains such as fatigue and dyscognition. In the clinical studies, patients receiving milnacipran reported significant improvements in pain and other symptoms for up to 15 months of treatment. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and were related to the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of the drug. Long-term exposure to milnacipran did not result in any new safety concerns. As with other serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, increases in heart rate and blood pressure have been observed in some patients with milnacipran treatment.


fatigue; fibromyalgia; milnacipran; pain; physical function; serotonin—norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

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