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Endocrinology. 2012 Oct;153(10):4966-77. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Evidence for a celiac ganglion-ovarian kisspeptin neural network in the rat: intraovarian anti-kisspeptin delays vaginal opening and alters estrous cyclicity.

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Laboratory of Neurobiochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492, Chile.


Kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54 have been described as key hypothalamic components in the regulation of GnRH secretion. Kisspeptin is also present in several regions of the central nervous system and the peripheral organs and has recently been identified in the superior ganglion. Herein, we tested the possibility that ovarian kisspeptin is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system and participates locally in the regulation of ovarian function. Both ovarian and celiac ganglion kisspeptin mRNA levels increase during development, whereas kisspeptin peptide levels and plasma levels decrease during development. In the celiac ganglion, kisspeptin colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase, indicating potential kisspeptin synthesis and transport within the sympathetic neurons. A continuous (64 h) cold stress induced marked changes within the kisspeptin neural system along the celiac ganglion-ovary axis. In vitro incubation with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol increased ovarian kisspeptin mRNA and peptide levels, and this increase was inhibited by treatment with the β-antagonist propranolol. Sectioning the superior ovarian nerve altered the feedback information within the kisspeptin celiac ganglion-ovary axis. In vivo administration of a kisspeptin antagonist to the left ovarian bursa of 22- to 50-d-old unilaterally ovariectomized rats delayed the vaginal opening, decreased the percentage of estrous cyclicity, and decreased plasma, ovarian, and celiac ganglion kisspeptin concentrations but did not modify the LH plasma levels. These results indicate that the intraovarian kisspeptin system may be regulated by sympathetic nerve activity and that the peptide, either from a neural or ovarian origin, is required for proper coordinated ovarian function.

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