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Childs Nerv Syst. 2012 Dec;28(12):2077-84. doi: 10.1007/s00381-012-1875-9. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Risk and protective factors of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm babies in Wuhan, China.

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Department of Neonatology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.



The aim of this study is to identify prenatal and perinatal risk and protective factors for the development of IVH, using a retrospective and case-control clinical study.


Prenatal and perinatal data were collected from three NICUs between January 2010 and December 2010. Univariate analysis was performed between case and control groups, and multivariate analysis was done to find out risk and protective factors for development of IVH. Further analysis of these variables was undertaken for gestational age strata <30, 30-34, and 35-37 weeks.


By univariate analysis, factors related with IVH were C-section, prenatal steroid, pregnancy-induced hypertension, transport from other hospital, hypothermia, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min < 4, luminal, pathological jaundice, RDS, hypotension, volume expansion/inotropics, PO(2), repeat suctioning, and mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05). Five variables remained significant in multivariate analysis. C-section and prenatal steroid use were protective variables while mechanical ventilation, hypotension, and transport from other hospital were risk factors. Further analysis of these variables was undertaken for gestational age strata <30, 30-34, and 35-37 weeks. Prenatal steroid use remained significant as a protective variable in gestational age less than 35 weeks; hypotension was shown to be a risk factor just in the time period between 30-34 weeks; transport from other hospital was a risk factor in gestational age more than 30 weeks; mechanical ventilation remained non-significant during the gestational age strata studied.


In the present study, factors that related to neonatal IVH included hypotension, prenatal steroid use, and transportation.

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