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Trends Immunol. 2012 Nov;33(11):554-62. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2012 Aug 3.

Developing strategies for HIV-1 eradication.

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Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.


Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, stimulating host immunity to control HIV-1 replication, and targeting latent HIV-1 in resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Future efforts should aim to provide better understanding of how to reconstitute the CD4(+) T cell compartment with genetically engineered cells, exert immune control over HIV-1 replication, and identify and eliminate all viral reservoirs.

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