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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Mar 20;18(9):1042-52. doi: 10.1089/ars.2012.4817. Epub 2012 Sep 17.

Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling by protein kinases in the cardiovascular system.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology, King's College London, The Rayne Institute, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE:

Oxidants were once principally considered perpetrators of injury and disease. However, this has become an antiquated view, with cumulative evidence showing that the oxidant hydrogen peroxide serves as a signaling molecule. Hydrogen peroxide carries vital information about the redox state of the cell and is crucial for homeostatic regulation during health and adaptation to stress.

RECENT ADVANCES:

In this review, we examine the contemporary concepts for how hydrogen peroxide is sensed and transduced into a biological response by introducing post-translational oxidative modifications on select proteins. Oxidant sensing and signaling by kinases are of particular importance as they integrate oxidant signals into phospho-regulated pathways. We focus on CAMKII, PKA, and PKG, kinases whose redox regulation has notable impact on cardiovascular function.

CRITICAL ISSUES:

In addition, we examine the mechanism for regulating intracellular hydrogen peroxide, considering the net concentrations that may accumulate. The effects of endogenously generated oxidants are often modeled by applying exogenous hydrogen peroxide to cells or tissues. Here we consider whether model systems exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide have relevance to systems where the oxidant is generated endogenously, and if so, what concentration can be justified in terms of relevance to health and disease.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

Improving our understanding of hydrogen peroxide signaling and the sensor proteins that it can modify will help us develop new strategies to regulate intracellular signaling to prevent disease.

PMID:
22867279
PMCID:
PMC3567777
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2012.4817
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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