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Crit Rev Microbiol. 2013 Aug;39(3):229-46. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2012.706249. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Recognition of bacterial infection by innate immune sensors.

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Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal, India.


Microbial challenges to the host initiate an array of defense processes through the activation of innate and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity consists of sensors or pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that are expressed on immune and non-immune cells and sense conserved pathogen-derived molecules or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in various compartments of the host cells. Recognition of the PAMPs by PRRs triggers antimicrobial effector responses via the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. Several families of PRRs, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and DNA sensors and their respective PAMPs have been well studied in innate immunity and host defense. Here, we review the recent findings on bacterial recognition by TLRs and NLRs and the signaling pathways activated by these sensors.

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