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Pak J Biol Sci. 2012 Feb 1;15(3):132-40.

Effect of Azotobacter vinelandii and compatible solutes on germination wheat seeds and root concentrations of sodium and potassium under salt stress.

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Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University of Ferhat-Abbas, Sétif, Algeria.


The effect of plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and exogenous application of compatible solutes on seed germination and root concentrations of sodium and potassium of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.) were evaluated under saline stress. In this experiment, Azotobacter vinelandii strain DSM85, glycine betaine and proline were used. Inoculated seeds for each variety were placed on Whatman paper in 9 cm Petri dishes containing 15 mL of distilled water or NaCl solutions at various concentrations (control, 100, 200, 300 mM) supplemented with or without glycine betaine (GB) or proline at 5 mM. The results indicated that addition of proline (5 mM) stimulated the production of indol acetic acid and the growth of A. vinelandii at 200 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. The germination rate index and the germination final percentage decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing salinity level. The germination was significantly diminished at 300 mM with significant variation among varieties and Waha variety had higher germination percentage than Bousselam variety. Inoculation of seeds by A. vinelandii and exogenous application of proline had significantly positive effect on the germination at this concentration of NaCl. The rate of accumulation of Na+ in roots was important at 100 mM and increased at 200 mM. The concentration of K+ decreased when salinity increased. The effect of inoculation or inoculation with proline decreased the accumulation of Na' and reduced the loss of K+ under salt stress. From the present study we can conclude that the use of A. vinelandii strain DSM85 and external application of low concentrations of proline on seeds might be considered as a strategy for the protection of plants under saline stress.

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