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Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Oct;17(10):1217-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.03054.x. Epub 2012 Aug 5.

Simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips compared to microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in a community in northern Ghana.

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  • 1Tropical Medicine Unit, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada  Division of General Internal Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada  Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA  Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA  Division of Laboratory Medicine, Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale, Ghana  Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland  University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.



To evaluate the utility of a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strip testing for the rapid diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in rural northern Ghana.


Cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey in a community in northern Ghana. Participants provided two urine specimens that were examined under a microscope using a centrifugation method. The first urine sample was additionally subjected to reagent strip testing. A short questionnaire was administered to all participants.


Microscopy of urine samples obtained from 208 individuals aged 1-77 years revealed an S. haematobium prevalence of 6.8%. The presence of any blood or protein on a urine reagent strip was 100% and 42% sensitive, and 93% and 80% specific for S. haematobium diagnosis. Questionnaires were completed by 198 individuals. Self-reported haematuria showed a sensitivity of 53% and a specificity of 85%. A dichotomous two-question panel was helpful in S. haematobium diagnosis, with working and playing near the river significantly associated with S. haematobium infection (P < 0.001).


The use of urine reagent strips, coupled with questions pertaining to water contact patterns, might be considered for point-of-contact diagnosis of S. haematobium where microscopy is unavailable.


Ghana; Schistosoma haematobium; bandelette réactive urinaire; cuestionario; diagnosis; diagnostic; diagnóstico; esquistosomiasis; microscopie; microscopy; microscopía; questionnaire; schistosomiase; schistosomiasis; tira reactiva de orina; urine reagent strip

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