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PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e42228. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042228. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

Loss of abdominal muscle in Pitx2 mutants associated with altered axial specification of lateral plate mesoderm.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

Erratum in

  • PLoS One. 2012;7(10). doi:10.1371/annotation/c980d5a1-1899-4d30-af7b-573d4049cf4b. Kiouss, Chrissa [corrected to Kioussi, Chrissa].

Abstract

Sequence specific transcription factors (SSTFs) combinatorially define cell types during development by forming recursively linked network kernels. Pitx2 expression begins during gastrulation, together with Hox genes, and becomes localized to the abdominal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) before the onset of myogenesis in somites. The somatopleure of Pitx2 null embryos begins to grow abnormally outward before muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) or Pitx2 begin expression in the dermomyotome/myotome. Abdominal somites become deformed and stunted as they elongate into the mutant body wall, but maintain normal MRF expression domains. Subsequent loss of abdominal muscles is therefore not due to defects in specification, determination, or commitment of the myogenic lineage. Microarray analysis was used to identify SSTF families whose expression levels change in E10.5 interlimb body wall biopsies. All Hox9-11 paralogs had lower RNA levels in mutants, whereas genes expressed selectively in the hypaxial dermomyotome/myotome and sclerotome had higher RNA levels in mutants. In situ hybridization analyses indicate that Hox gene expression was reduced in parts of the LPM and intermediate mesoderm of mutants. Chromatin occupancy studies conducted on E10.5 interlimb body wall biopsies showed that Pitx2 protein occupied chromatin sites containing conserved bicoid core motifs in the vicinity of Hox 9-11 and MRF genes. Taken together, the data indicate that Pitx2 protein in LPM cells acts, presumably in combination with other SSTFs, to repress gene expression, that are normally expressed in physically adjoining cell types. Pitx2 thereby prevents cells in the interlimb LPM from adopting the stable network kernels that define sclerotomal, dermomyotomal, or myotomal mesenchymal cell types. This mechanism may be viewed either as lineage restriction or specification.

PMID:
22860089
PMCID:
PMC3409154
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0042228
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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