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Vaccine. 2012 Sep 14;30(42):6047-53. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.051. Epub 2012 Aug 2.

Cross-reactive gut-directed immune response against Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and B in typhoid fever and after oral Ty21a typhoid vaccination.

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1
Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Haartman Institute, POB 21, 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. sari.pakkanen@helsinki.fi

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There are no vaccines against paratyphoid fever in clinical use. The disease has become more wide-spread and there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance among the strains. Previous reports suggest that the oral live Salmonella Typhi Ty21a-vaccine confers protection against paratyphoid B fever. Data on efficacy against paratyphoid A fever are somewhat contentious. The present study investigated the immunological basis for such efficacy reports at a single-cell level: plasmablasts (identified as antibody-secreting cells, ASC) were studied for secretion of antibodies cross-reactive with Salmonella Paratyphi in the circulation of patients with enteric fever and of volunteers vaccinated with Ty21a.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Thirty volunteers immunized with Ty21a and five patients with enteric fever were investigated for Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A/B/C-specific circulating plasmablasts. PBMC were sorted by their expression of homing receptors (HR) for the intestine (α4β7), peripheral lymph node (l-selectin) and skin (CLA) and typhoid- and paratyphoid-specific plasmablasts were enumerated with ELISPOT.

RESULTS:

Before vaccination, no cross-reactive ASC were found in the volunteers. In addition to the Salmonella Typhi-specific response, a significant cross-reactive immune response was mounted against Salmonella Paratyphi A and B both in the patients and the vaccinees. The magnitude of the response increased in the order Salmonella Paratyphi A (median 30 ASC/10(6) PBMC)→Salmonella Paratyphi B (median 81)→Salmonella Typhi (median 301) in the vaccinees. Both in patients and in vaccinees, the homing receptor (HR) selection favored homing to the gut, indicating a humoral intestinal immune response.

CONCLUSIONS:

These immunological data provide evidence consistent with previous reports describing certain levels of cross-protective efficacy of Ty21a against paratyphoid fever. Controlled studies are needed to evaluate cross-protective efficacy. In the current situation where paratyphoid fever is emerging and no vaccines are available, any level of cross-protective capacity is valuable.

PMID:
22858557
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.051
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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