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Neurology. 2012 Aug 14;79(7):690-9. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318264e3be. Epub 2012 Aug 1.

C-reactive protein in intracerebral hemorrhage: time course, tissue localization, and prognosis.

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Neurological Service, San Camillo de Lellis General Hospital, Rieti, Italy.



We examined the C-reactive protein (CRP) response after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and its relationship to outcome. We additionally characterized early brain localization of CRP.


In this prospective, multicenter, international, collaborative, longitudinal study with cross-sectional immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue, 223 patients (M/F: 132/91) were recruited during the 2010 calendar year. CRP was evaluated at admission (median 93 minutes from symptom onset), 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after sICH. Brains of 5 subjects with sICH were compared to brains of 2 aged controls without evidence of brain pathology and 7 patients with ischemic stroke. Plasma CRP was measured over 72 hours following sICH and its relationship to 30-day mortality and functional outcome at 30 days (Glasgow Outcome Scale) was determined. CRP immunostaining patterns were analyzed in samples of sICH autopsy brains.


Plasma CRP increased over the 48 hours from admission and was significantly (p < 0.001) related to hematoma volume at later time points. The predictive utility of CRP for morbidity and mortality were maintained when adjusted for other risk factors and improved at 48 hours and 72 hours when compared with admission values. Although an early CRP localization was present in both ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions, an intense and diffuse neuropil staining was only present in sICH patients and particularly evident proximal to the hemorrhagic areas.


Plasma CRP production increases markedly over the 48 hours to 72 hours period following sICH and is related to outcome. CRP is also present in large amounts around the hemorrhagic lesion and within neurons and glia of patients who died within 12 hours of sICH.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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