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Rev Sci Instrum. 2012 Jul;83(7):071101. doi: 10.1063/1.4731658.

Invited review article: technology for attosecond science.

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Department of Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.


We describe a complete technological system at Imperial College London for Attosecond Science studies. The system comprises a few-cycle, carrier envelope phase stabilized laser source which delivers sub 4 fs pulses to a vibration-isolated attosecond vacuum beamline. The beamline is used for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) at kilohertz repetition rates through laser-driven high harmonic generation in gas targets. The beamline incorporates: interferometers for producing pulse sequences for pump-probe studies; the facility to spectrally and spatially filter the harmonic radiation; an in-line spatially resolving XUV spectrometer; and a photoelectron spectroscopy chamber in which attosecond streaking is used to characterize the attosecond pulses. We discuss the technology and techniques behind the development of our complete system and summarize its performance. This versatile apparatus has enabled a number of new experimental investigations which we briefly describe.

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