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Islets. 2012 May-Jun;4(3):223-32. doi: 10.4161/isl.20477.

Islet amyloid polypeptide in pancreatic islets from type 2 diabetic subjects.

Author information

1
Department of Integrative Bioscience, Oregon National Primate Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA. tomitat@ohsu.edu

Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a chief constituent of amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets, characteristic histopathology for type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to analyze islet cell composition in diabetic islets for the process of transforming water-soluble IAPP in β-cells to water-insoluble amyloid deposits by Immunocytochemical staining using different dilutions of anti-IAPP antibody. IAPP in β-cell granules may initiate β-cell necrosis through apoptosis to form interstitial amyloid deposits in type 2 diabetic islets.

RESULTS:

Control islets revealed twice as much β-cells as α-cells whereas 15 of 18 type 2 diabetic cases (83%) revealed α- cells as major cells in larger islets. Diabetic islets consisted of more larger islets with more σ-cells than β-cells, which contribute to hyperglucagonemia. In control islets, percentage of IAPP-positive cells against β-cells was 40-50% whereas percentage for type 2 diabetic islets was about 25%. Amyloid deposits in diabetic islets were not readily immunostained for IAPP using 1: 800 diluted antibody, however, 1: 400 and 1: 200 diluted solutions provided stronger immunostaining in early stages of islet amyloidogenesis after treating the deparaffinized sections with formic acid.

METHODS:

Using commercially available rabbit antihuman IAPP antibody, immunocytochemical staining was performed on 18 cases of pancreatic tissues from type 2 diabetic subjects by systematically immunostaining for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin (SRIF) and IAPP compared with controls. Sizes of islets were measured by 1 cm scale, mounted in 10X eye piece.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:

α cells were major islet cells in majority of diabetic pancreas (83%) and all diabetic islets contained less IAPP-positive cells than controls, indicating that IAPP deficiency in pancreatic islets is responsible for decreased IAPP in blood. In diabetic islets, water-soluble IAPP disappeared in β-cell granules, which transformed to water-insoluble amyloid deposits. Amyloid deposits were not readily immunostained using IAPP 1: 800 diluted antibody but were stronger immunostained for IAPP in early stages of amyloid deposited islets using less diluted solutions after formic acid treatment. In early islet amyloidogenesis, dying β-cell cytoplasm was adjacently located to fine amyloid fibrils, supporting that IAPP in secretary granules from dying β cells served as nidus for islet β-sheet formation.

PMID:
22847497
PMCID:
PMC3442820
DOI:
10.4161/isl.20477
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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