Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Clin Exp Optom. 2012 Nov;95(6):572-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1444-0938.2012.00781.x. Epub 2012 Jul 30.

The cause(s) of myopia and the efforts that have been made to prevent it.

Author information

School of Optometry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.


In spite of a long history of study, as well as a significant, recent increase in research attention, the cause(s) and the means of preventing or mitigating the progression of myopia in children are still elusive. The high and growing prevalence of myopia, especially in Asian populations, as well as its progressive nature in children and its effect on visual acuity, have contributed to the recent surge in interest. Animal research carried out in the 1970s also helped spark this interest by legitimising the study of environmental influences on the refractive development of the eye. Efforts that include the use of visual training or biofeedback, bifocal and progressive lenses, contact lenses and pharmaceuticals are reviewed. Current research trends that focus on the relationship between genetics and environment, as well as studies, both animal and human, that explore the effect of peripheral refractive error on the refractive development of the central retina are also reviewed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons


    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center