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Evol Bioinform Online. 2012;8:373-87. doi: 10.4137/EBO.S9796. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Phylogenomic and domain analysis of iterative polyketide synthases in Aspergillus species.

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Institute of Bioinformatics and Structural Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.


Aspergillus species are industrially and agriculturally important as fermentors and as producers of various secondary metabolites. Among them, fungal polyketides such as lovastatin and melanin are considered a gold mine for bioactive compounds. We used a phylogenomic approach to investigate the distribution of iterative polyketide synthases (PKS) in eight sequenced Aspergilli and classified over 250 fungal genes. Their genealogy by the conserved ketosynthase (KS) domain revealed three large groups of nonreducing PKS, one group inside bacterial PKS, and more than 9 small groups of reducing PKS. Polyphyly of nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS)-PKS genes raised questions regarding the recruitment of the elegant conjugation machinery. High rates of gene duplication and divergence were frequent. All data are accessible through our web database at


database; fungi; phylogeny ; polyketide synthase; secondary metabolite

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