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Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 Nov 5;363(1-2):46-61. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2012.07.006. Epub 2012 Jul 24.

Relaxin induces matrix-metalloproteinases-9 and -13 via RXFP1: induction of MMP-9 involves the PI3K, ERK, Akt and PKC-ζ pathways.

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The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078, USA.


We determined the precise role of relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors-1 and -2 in the regulation of MMP-9 and -13 by relaxin, and delineated the signaling cascade that contributes to relaxin's modulation of MMP-9 in fibrocartilaginous cells. Relaxin treatment of cells in which RXFP1 was silenced resulted in diminished induction of MMP-9 and -13 by relaxin, whereas overexpression of RXFP1 potentiated the relaxin-induced expression of these proteinases. Suppression or overexpression of RXFP2 resulted in no changes in the relaxin-induced MMP-9 and -13. Studies using chemical inhibitors and siRNAs to signaling molecules showed that PI3K, Akt, ERK and PKC-ζ and the transcription factors Elk-1, c-fos and, to a lesser extent, NF-κB are involved in relaxin's induction of MMP-9. Our findings provide the first characterization of signaling cascade involved in the regulation of any MMP by relaxin and offer mechanistic insights on how relaxin likely mediates extracellular matrix turnover.

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