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Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Aug 21;46(16):9055-61. doi: 10.1021/es301380d. Epub 2012 Aug 9.

Concentration of trichloroethylene in breast milk and household water from Nogales, Arizona.

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1
Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1295 N. Martin Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85724, United States. pbeamer@email.arizona.edu

Erratum in

  • Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Oct 16;46(20):11483.

Abstract

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified quantification of trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial solvent, in breast milk as a high priority need for risk assessment. Water and milk samples were collected from 20 households by a lactation consultant in Nogales, Arizona. Separate water samples (including tap, bottled, and vending machine) were collected for all household uses: drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. A risk factor questionnaire was administered. Liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether was followed by GC-MS for TCE quantification in water. Breast milk underwent homogenization, lipid hydrolysis, and centrifugation prior to extraction. The limit of detection was 1.5 ng/mL. TCE was detected in 7 of 20 mothers' breast milk samples. The maximum concentration was 6 ng/mL. TCE concentration in breast milk was significantly correlated with the concentration in water used for bathing (ρ = 0.59, p = 0.008). Detection of TCE in breast milk was more likely if the infant had a body mass index <14 (RR = 5.2, p = 0.02). Based on average breast milk consumption, TCE intake for 5% of the infants may exceed the proposed U.S. EPA Reference Dose. Results of this exploratory study warrant more in depth studies to understand risk of TCE exposures from breast milk intake.

PMID:
22827160
PMCID:
PMC3699401
DOI:
10.1021/es301380d
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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