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Vet Surg. 2012 Aug;41(6):696-704. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.00996.x. Epub 2012 Jul 23.

Measurement of femoral and tibial joint reference angles and pelvic limb alignment in cats.

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA. swanson2@purdue.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To report pelvic limb joint reference angles, limb alignment, and mechanical axis deviation for the feline pelvic limb.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cadaveric radiographic anatomic study.

ANIMALS:

Skeletally mature, mixed breed cats (n = 50).

METHODS:

Extended pelvic limb radiography was performed and images analyzed to determine femoral anatomic joint reference angles, femoral and tibial mechanical joint reference angles, tibiofemoral angle, metatarsotibial angle, mechanical axis-femur and mechanical axis-metatarsus angles, and mechanical axis deviation of the stifle and tarsus. Mean ± SD and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated.

RESULTS:

Mean ± SD angles and 95% CI were: anatomic lateral proximal femoral (103.9° ± 3.8°; 103.1° - 104.6°), anatomic lateral distal femoral (93.8° ± 2.5°; 93.3° - 94.3°), mechanical lateral proximal femoral (100.5° ± 3.7°; 99.8° - 101.2°), mechanical lateral distal femoral (97.2° ± 2.2°; 96.7° - 97.6°), mechanical medial proximal tibial (88.0° ± 3.2°; 87.3° - 88.6°), mechanical medial distal tibial (107.6° ± 4.8°; 106.6° - 108.5°), mechanical tibiofemoral (7.4° varus ± 2.5°; 6.9° - 7.9°), mechanical metatarsotibial (6.0° valgus ± 3.5°; 5.3° - 6.7°); mechanical axis-femur (3.2° ± 1.4°; 2.9° - 3.5°) and mechanical axis-metatarsus (2.4° ± 2.0°; 1.7° - 2.1°). Mechanical axis deviation of the stifle and of the tarsus were 2.0% ± 0.9% (95% CI: 1.9-2.2) and 0.8% ± 1.0% (95% CI: 0.7-1.0), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Mean pelvic limb joint reference and limb alignment angles can be used for diagnosing angular limb deformities of the feline pelvic limb and for planning corrective osteotomies in affected cats.

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