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Addiction. 2013 Feb;108(2):406-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04026.x. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers.

Author information

1
Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA. rubinsteinm@peds.ucsf.edu

Abstract

AIMS:

The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the nicotine metabolic rate and smoking behavior, including addiction, in adolescent smokers.

DESIGN:

Baseline data from a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors and nicotine metabolism.

SETTING:

The setting was an out-patient university hospital in San Francisco.

PARTICIPANTS:

Adolescent smokers (n = 164) aged 13-17 years old.

MEASUREMENTS:

Participants completed self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire: mFTQ). The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a phenotypic marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism, was calculated using the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine-d(4) .

FINDINGS:

Participants reported smoking a mean of 2.86 cigarettes per day (CPD) [median = 1.78, standard deviation (SD) = 3.35] for 1.37 years (median = 1.0, SD = 1.36). Results from multivariate analyses accounting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and duration of smoking indicated that slower metabolizers smoked more CPD than faster metabolizers (the NMR was inversely related to CPD; P = 0.02). Slower metabolizers also showed greater dependence on the mFTQ (NMR was negatively associated with the mFTQ; P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

In adolescence, slower clearance of nicotine may be associated with greater levels of addiction, perhaps mediated by a greater number of cigarettes smoked.

PMID:
22823143
PMCID:
PMC3504133
DOI:
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04026.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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