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Am J Transplant. 2012 Oct;12(10):2763-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04192.x. Epub 2012 Jul 23.

Monitoring of immunoglobulin levels identifies kidney transplant recipients at high risk of infection.

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Unit of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Instituto de Investigación Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.


We aimed to analyze the incidence, risk factors and impact of hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) in 226 kidney transplant (KT) recipients in which serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels were prospectively assessed at baseline, month 1 (T(1) ), and month 6 (T(6) ). The prevalence of IgG HGG increased from 6.6% (baseline) to 52.0% (T(1) ) and subsequently decreased to 31.4% (T(6) ) (p < 0.001). The presence of IgG HGG at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 26.9; p = 0.012) and a positive anti-HCV status (OR 0.17; p = 0.023) emerged as risk factors for the occurrence of posttransplant IgG HGG. Patients with HGG of any class at T(1) had higher incidences of overall (p = 0.018) and bacterial infection (p = 0.004), bacteremia (p = 0.054) and acute pyelonephritis (p = 0.003) in the intermediate period (months 1-6). Patients with HGG at T(6) had higher incidences of overall (p = 0.004) and bacterial infection (p < 0.001) in the late period (>6 month). A complementary log-log model identified posttransplant HGG as an independent risk factor for overall (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03; p < 0.001) and bacterial infection (HR 2.68; p < 0.0001). Monitoring of humoral immunity identifies KT recipients at high risk of infection, offering the opportunity for preemptive immunoglobulin replacement therapy.

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