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Radiology. 2012 Aug;264(2):333-48. doi: 10.1148/radiol.12111658.

MR imaging of the small bowel.

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Department of Radiology, Università di Roma Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico, Rome, Italy.


Small-bowel radiology has undergone dramatic changes in the past 2 decades. Despite important recent advances in small-bowel endoscopy, radiologic imaging remains important for patients suspected of having or with established small-bowel disease. Cross-sectional imaging techniques (computed tomography and magnetic resonance [MR] imaging), used to investigate both extraluminal abnormalities and intraluminal changes, have gradually replaced barium contrast examinations, which are, however, still used to examine early mucosal disease. MR imaging techniques clearly highlight endoluminal, mural and extramural enteric details and provide vascular and functional information, thereby enhancing the diagnostic value of these techniques in small-bowel diseases. Two MR imaging based techniques are currently utilized: MR enteroclysis and MR enterography. In enteroclysis, enteric contrast material is administered through a nasoenteric tube, whereas in enterography, large volumes of enteric contrast material are administered orally. MR enteroclysis ensures consistently better luminal distention than does MR enterography in both the jejunum and the ileum and more accurately depicts endoluminal abnormalities and early disease, particularly at the level of the jejunal loops. Moreover, MR enteroclysis provides a high level of accuracy in the diagnosis and exclusion of small-bowel inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and can be used for the first radiologic evaluation, while MR enterography may effectively be used to follow up both Crohn disease patients without jejunal disease and in pediatric patients where nasogastric intubation might be a problem. MR enteroclysis may also reveal subtle transition points or an obstruction in the lower small bowel, which may escape detection when more routine methods, including enterography, are used. MR imaging offers detailed morphologic information and functional data of small-bowel diseases and provides reliable evidence of normalcy, thereby allowing the diagnosis of early or subtle structural abnormalities and guiding treatment and decisions in patient care.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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