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Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov;55(9):1262-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis621. Epub 2012 Jul 19.

High incidence of renal stones among HIV-infected patients on ritonavir-boosted atazanavir than in those receiving other protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy.

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AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.



Little information is available on the incidence of renal stones with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) use.


In a single-center study, the incidence of renal stones was compared between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who commenced ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r)-containing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (the ATV/r group) and those who were receiving other protease inhibitors (the other PIs group). The effects of ATV/r were estimated by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Other possible risk factors were evaluated by univariate analysis, and those found to be significant were entered into multivariate analysis.


Renal stones were diagnosed in 31 patients (23.7 cases per 1000 person-years) in the ATV/r group (n = 465) and 4 in patients (2.2 cases per 1000 person-years) in the other PIs group (n = 775). ATV/r use was significantly associated with renal stones, by univariate and multivariate analyses (adjusted hazard ratio, 10.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.685-29.59; P < .001). ATV/r remained a significant risk factor for renal stones in all subgroups stratified by the median values of baseline variables. In the 31 patients receiving ATV/r who developed renal stones, the median time from commencement of ATV/r to diagnosis was 24.5 months (interquartile range, 14.7-34.6 months). Of the 18 patients who continued ATV/r despite the diagnosis of renal stones, 6 (33.3%) experienced recurrence. No patient who discontinued ATV/r experienced recurrence during the observation period (250.6 person-months).


The incidence of renal stones was substantially higher among patients in the ATV/r group, compared with patients in the other PIs group. Continuation of ATV/r after diagnosis of renal stones was associated with a high rate of recurrence. Switching ATV/r to other ARVs is warranted in patients who develop renal stones.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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