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FEBS Lett. 2012 Aug 31;586(18):2897-2905. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2012.07.032. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Immunoregulatory molecules are master regulators of inflammation during the immune response.

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Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3, 28029 Madrid, Spain.
Contributed equally


The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling is critical to maintain the immune homeostasis under physiological conditions as well as for the control of inflammation in different pathological settings. Recent progress in the signalling pathways that control this balance has led to the development of novel therapeutic agents for diseases characterized by alterations in the activation/suppression of the immune response. Different molecules have a key role in the regulation of the immune system, including the receptors PD-1 (Programmed cell Death 1), CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4) and galectins; or the intracellular enzyme IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase). In addition, other molecules as CD69, AhR (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor), and GADD45 (Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible 45) family members, have emerged as potential targets for the regulation of the activation/suppression balance of immune cells. This review offers a perspective on well-characterized as well as emergent negative immune regulatory molecules in the context of autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

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