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Virology. 2012 Oct 25;432(2):405-16. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.06.021. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus populations in Vietnam between 2007 and 2010.

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  • 1Graduate School, Hanoi University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam.


We report on the genetic analysis of 213 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Vietnam between 2007 and 2010. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral genomes revealed 38 distinct viral genotypes, 29 were novel and 9 were reported in Vietnam or neighboring countries in recent years. Viruses from only six genotypes persisted beyond one season or year. Thus, most reassortant viruses were transient, suggesting that such genotypes lacked significant fitness advantages. Viruses with clade HA were re-introduced into Vietnam in 2009 and their prevalence rose steeply towards the end of 2010. Clade 2.3.4-like viruses (genotype V) were predominant in northern Vietnam and caused the majority of zoonotic infections, whereas clade 1.1 (genotype Z) viruses were only detected in the Mekong delta region, in southern Vietnam. Antigenic analysis of representative viruses from the four clades indicated substantial drift.

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