Send to

Choose Destination
J Biomech. 2012 Aug 31;45(13):2248-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.06.010. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

An integrated model of active glenohumeral stability.

Author information

Laboratory for Orthopedic Research, Department of Orthopedics, Balgrist, University of Zurich, Switzerland.


We present the first model of the glenohumeral joint implementing active muscle driven humeral positioning and stabilization without a priori constraints on glenohumeral kinematics. Previously established methods were used to predetermine the path, activation timing and resultant force contribution of 27 individual muscle segments at any given joint position. Artificial boundary conditions were applied in a three-dimensional finite element model of the joint and progressively released until the humeral head was completely free to rotate and translate within the fixed glenoid according to the compressive component of the predetermined resultant force. The shear component was then added such that no boundary conditions other than muscular force were applied. The framework was exploited to simulate elevation as a composite of instantaneous positions and theoretically demonstrate that joint stability can be achieved exclusively through muscular activity. Predicted muscle moment arms, muscle activation timing, humeral head translations, joint contact forces and stability ratio were comparable with existing experimental and in vivo data. This framework could be valuable for subject specific modeling and may be used to address clinical hypotheses related to shoulder joint stability that cannot be pursued using simplified modeling approaches.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center