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BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Jul 20;12:104.

In vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer effects of Garcinia mangostana xanthones extract.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, 11800, Pulau Penang, Malaysia. abedaisheh@yahoo.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Xanthones are a group of oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds with remarkable pharmacological effects such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.

METHODS:

A xanthones extract (81% α-mangostin and 16% γ-mangostin), was prepared by crystallization of a toluene extract of G. mangostana fruit rinds and was analyzed by LC-MS. Anti-colon cancer effect was investigated on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, anti-tumorigenicity, and effect on cell signalling pathways. The in vivo anti-colon cancer activity was also investigated on subcutaneous tumors established in nude mice.

RESULTS:

The extract showed potent cytotoxicity (median inhibitory concentration 6.5 ± 1.0 μg/ml), due to induction of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Three key steps in tumor metastasis including the cell migration, cell invasion and clonogenicity, were also inhibited. The extract and α-mangostin up-regulate the MAPK/ERK, c-Myc/Max, and p53 cell signalling pathways. The xanthones extract, when fed to nude mice, caused significant growth inhibition of the subcutaneous tumor of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggest new mechanisms of action of α-mangostin and the G. mangostana xanthones, and suggest the xanthones extract of as a potential anti-colon cancer candidate.

PMID:
22818000
PMCID:
PMC3457913
DOI:
10.1186/1472-6882-12-104
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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