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Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012 Sep 15;178(3):477-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.07.001. Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Kinetics of GDF9 expression in buffalo oocytes during in vitro maturation and their associated development ability.

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Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132001, Haryana, India.


The capacity of fully grown oocytes to regulate their own microenvironment by secreted paracrine factors contribute to their developmental competence. In spite of growing evidence about the vital role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) in determination of oocyte developmental competence, there is insufficient information about time dependent behavior of its expression during in vitro maturation (IVM) to have definite understanding about at what time point during IVM it plays most crucial role. The study reports the kinetics of GDF9 expression under four different IVM supplement conditions in buffalo oocytes and their concomitant development rate up to blastocyst. Oocytes matured under an ideal media condition with all supplements and those cultured with only FSH resulted in significantly higher cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation, cleavage and blastocyst rates. GDF9 expression at both mRNA and protein levels at different time points of IVM revealed that magnitude of mRNA abundance at 8h of IVM was most important towards imparting development competence to buffalo oocytes. Appearance of GDF9 protein in maturing oocytes was found asynchronous with mRNA appearance in the time course of IVM suggesting possible posttranscriptional regulation of this gene under dynamic oocyte cumulus cell communication process. Abundance of mature GDF9 protein at 16 h was most consistently related with all oocyte development parameters.

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