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Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2011 Jul-Sep;5(3):115-9. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2012.03.001. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Prevalence of hypertension, control of blood pressure and treatment in hypertensive with type 2 diabetes in Hospital University Sains Malaysia.

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Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.



To determine the prevalence of hypertension, control of hypertension and patterns of antihypertensive medications in Malaysian type 2 diabetic patients who attended diabetes clinics in Hospital University Sains Malaysia (Tertiary Hospital).


The study design was observational prospective longitudinal follow-up study; the study was conducted with sample of 1077 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatient recruited whom attended the diabetes clinics at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan. The study period was from January till December 2008. Blood pressure was defined as >130/80 or use of antihypertension medications. Demographic characteristics of patients, level of blood pressure control, use of antihypertensive medications and patterns of antihypertensive therapy.


The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysian type 2 diabetic patients was 998 (92.7%),antihypertensive drugs were prescribed in 940 (94.2%) of hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus. The achievement of blood pressure control (≤130/80 mmHg) was 471 (47.2%) %. The percentage of patients receiving one, two, three, and four drugs were 253 (25.3%), 311 (31.3%), 179 (17.9%), and 197 (19.7%) respectively. Calcium channel blockers were the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive agents 757 (75.7%) followed by Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors 446 (44.6%), and Angiotensin receptor blockers 42.4 (42.4%).


The prevalence of hypertension is high in Malaysian type 2 diabetic patients, hypertension was not controlled to the recommended levels of blood pressure in about one-half (52.8%) of diabetes patients. Calcium channel blockers were the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive agents. There is an urgent need to educate both patients and health care providers of importance of achieving target of treatment in order to reduce morbidity and mortality due to diabetes with hypertension.

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