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Nutr Res Pract. 2012 Jun;6(3):232-7. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2012.6.3.232. Epub 2012 Jun 30.

The effect of salt usage behavior on sodium intake and excretion among Korean women.

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Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University, Seongnam 461-713, Korea.


This study was done to explore the effect of Korean women's salt usage behavior on their sodium intake and excretion according to aging. Dietary sodium intake and salt usage behavior were analyzed to compare the difference between young and middle-aged women. One hundred fifty six young women and 77 middle-aged women without hypertension or any current medication were recruited. Body mass index, waist hip ratio, blood pressure were measured from each subject. Salt usage behaviors were surveyed with questionnaire, sodium intake with 24-hr recall method, and sodium excretion with spot urine. Middle-aged women were more obese than young women according to body mass index and waist hip ratio. Blood pressure was significantly higher for the middle-aged. Young women consumed more fats and middle-aged women more carbohydrates. Middle-aged women consumed more sodium and potassium, and excreted more sodium. Among questionnaire items, kimchi, soup or pot stew, or salted vegetables were found to be related with high sodium diet. Salted vegetables and salted nuts and potato chips were significantly correlated with young women's high sodium diet, while soy sauce on fried food, kimchi, salted vegetables accounted for middle-aged women's high sodium diet. With these results, we concluded that middle-aged women consumed more carbohydrates, less fat, and more sodium and potassium than young women. Middle-aged women frequently choose kimchi, soup or pot stew, or salted vegetables, and they contribute to high sodium intake. We recommend to choose low-salt kimchi, less soup or pot stew, and more fresh vegetables for lower sodium diet.


Sodium intake; blood pressure; low sodium diet; salt usage behavior

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