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J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 31;287(36):30688-700. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.353771. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

α(1)-Acid glycoprotein up-regulates CD163 via TLR4/CD14 protein pathway: possible protection against hemolysis-induced oxidative stress.

Author information

1
Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan.

Abstract

CD163, a scavenger receptor that is expressed at high levels in the monocyte-macrophage system, is a critical factor for the efficient extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) clearance during hemolysis. Because of the enormous detrimental effect of liberated Hb on our body by its ability to induce pro-inflammatory signals and tissue damage, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with CD163 expression during the acute phase response is a central issue. We report here that α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), an acute phase protein, the serum concentration of which is elevated under various inflammatory conditions, including hemolysis, up-regulates CD163 expression in both macrophage-like differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the subsequent induction of Hb uptake was also observed in AGP-treated dTHP-1 cells. Among representative acute phase proteins such as AGP, α(1)-antitrypsin, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin, only AGP increased CD163 expression, suggesting that AGP plays a specific role in the regulation of CD163. Consistently, the physiological concentrations of AGP induced CD163, and the subsequent induction of Hb uptake as well as the reduction of oxidative stress in plasma were observed in phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic model mice, confirming the in vivo role of AGP. Finally, AGP signaling through the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and CD14, the common innate immune receptor complex that normally recognizes bacterial components, was identified as a crucial stimulus that induces the autocrine regulatory loops of IL-6 and/or IL-10 via NF-κB, p38, and JNK pathways, which leads to an enhancement in CD163 expression. These findings provide possible insights into how AGP exerts anti-inflammatory properties against hemolysis-induced oxidative stress.

PMID:
22807450
PMCID:
PMC3436313
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M112.353771
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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