Send to

Choose Destination
J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Oct;92(13):2603-10. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5768. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

Carotenoid bioaccessibility from nine raw carotenoid-storing fruits and vegetables using an in vitro model.

Author information

Horticulture Department, 2231 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.



Many techniques exist for processing fruits and vegetables. The impact of these processes on nutritional qualities of the food can be considerable, however. Given the benefits of eating raw foods, nutrient sources need to be identified that deliver substantial benefit without cooking. In this study a survey of carotenoid bioaccessibility was carried out in order to additionally evaluate the impact of their distinctive storage structures (chromoplasts) on bioaccessibility.


Per cent carotenoid bioaccessibility varied among the nine raw, whole fruits and vegetables evaluated, with values of 1-39% for lycopene, 18-20% for α-carotene, 7-49% for β-carotene, 9-59% for lutein, 4-22% for violaxanthin and 47-96% for phytoene. Per 100 g of food, grapefruit and watermelon imparted the most lycopene (69 and 64 µg respectively), carrot the most α-carotene (559 µg), β-carotene (1078 µg), lutein (91 µg) and phytoene (23 mg) and mango the most violaxanthin (177 µg). Digestive stability averaged over 80%, except for the xanthophylls, which exhibited a wider and lower range of stabilities.


These data identify raw food sources for carotenoid bioaccessibilities comparable to those of other foods accomplished by substantial processing. The information presented here also has application in identifying appropriate plant-breeding goals and optimal sources for commercial carotenoid isolations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center