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Minerva Med. 2012 Aug;103(4):279-91.

An update on the current management of hyponatremia.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, Inselspital University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland.


Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients. According to the Edelman equation, hyponatremia usually develops due to a gain of free water, a loss of serum sodium or a combination of both. Investigating the causes of hyponatremia and consequent correction of the electrolyte disorder can be challenging. In this review we give an overview on the mechanisms leading to hyponatremia and in a further step, the correction of hyponatremia is discussed in detail with sections on: rate of correction, treatment with respect to volume state, risks of correction and a discussion of vasopressin receptor antagonists.

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