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Rev Bras Fisioter. 2012 Jul-Aug;16(4):261-7. Epub 2012 Jul 17.

The contribution of inspiratory muscles function to exercise limitation in heart failure: pathophysiological mechanisms.

[Article in English, Portuguese]

Author information

1
Laboratory of Exercise Physiopathology, Department of Cardiology, Hospital de ClĂ­nicas, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Heart failure induces histological, metabolic and functional adaptations in the inspiratory muscles. This inspiratory muscle weakness, which occurs in 30% to 50% of the heart failure patients, is associated with reduction in the functional capacity, reduction in the quality of life and with a poor prognosis in these individuals.

OBJECTIVES:

The objective of this review was to discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms that may explain the role of the inspiratory muscles in the exercise limitation with focus in the reflexes that control the ventilation and the circulation during the exercise.

METHOD:

We performed searches in the PUBMED database using the terms "inspiratory muscles", "inspiratory muscle training", "metaboreflex" and chemoreflex" and including studies published since 1980.

RESULTS:

Inspiratory muscle weakness is associated with exercise intolerance and with an exaggerated inspiratory chemoreflex and metaboreflex in heart failure. The inspiratory metaboreflex may be attenuated by the inspiratory muscle training or by the aerobic exercise training improving the exercise performance.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with heart failure may present changes in the inspiratory muscle function associated with inspiratory chemoreflex and metaboreflex hyperactivity, which exacerbate the exercise intolerance.

PMID:
22801449
DOI:
10.1590/s1413-35552012005000034
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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