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Chest. 2012 Jul;142(1):231-238. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-2420.

Technologic advances in endotracheal tubes for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX.
2
Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX; Veterans Evidence Based Research Dissemination and Implementation Center (VERDICT), Audie L. Murphy VA Hospital, San Antonio, TX. Electronic address: restrepom@uthscsa.edu.

Abstract

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and costs. Interventions to prevent VAP are a high priority in the care of critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). Multiple interventions are recommended by evidence-based practice guidelines to prevent VAP, but there is a growing interest in those related to the endotracheal tube (ETT) as the main target linked to VAP. Microaspiration and biofilm formation are the two most important mechanisms implicated in the colonization of the tracheal bronchial tree and the development of VAP. Microaspiration occurs when there is distal migration of microorganisms present in the secretions accumulated above the ETT cuff. Biofilm formation has been described as the development of a network of secretions and attached microorganisms that migrate along the ETT cuff polymer and inside the lumen, facilitating the transfer to the sterile bronchial tree. Therefore, our objective was to review the literature related to recent advances in ETT technologies regarding their impact on the control of microaspiration and biofilm formation in patients on MV, and the subsequent impact on VAP.

PMID:
22796845
PMCID:
PMC3418858
DOI:
10.1378/chest.11-2420
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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