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Vaccine. 2012 Aug 24;30(39):5748-54. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.002. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

Mycobacterium indicus pranii mediates macrophage activation through TLR2 and NOD2 in a MyD88 dependent manner.

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  • 1School of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.


Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is a non-pathogenic strain of mycobacterium and has been used as a vaccine against tuberculosis and leprosy. Here, we investigated the role of different pattern recognition receptors in the recognition of heat-killed MIP by macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with MIP caused upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (like TNFα and IL-1β) which was mediated through both TLR2 and NOD2, as revealed by our knockdown and/or knockout studies. Mechanistically, MIP-induced macrophage activation was shown to result in NF-κB activation and drastically abrogated by MyD88 deficiency, suggesting its regulation via an MyD88-dependent, NF-κB pathway. Interestingly, the IFN-inducible cytokine, CXCL10, which is known target of the TRIF-dependent TLR pathway was found to be upregulated in response to MIP but, in an MyD88-dependent manner. Collectively, these results demonstrate macrophages to recognize and respond to MIP through a TLR2, NOD2 and an MyD88-dependent pathway. However, further studies should clarify whether additional TLR-dependent or -independent pathways also exist in regulating the full spectrum of MIP action on macrophage activation.

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