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Matrix Biol. 2012 Jul;31(6):338-51. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2012.07.001. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

The stimulation of adenosine 2A receptor reduces inflammatory response in mouse articular chondrocytes treated with hyaluronan oligosaccharides.

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  • 1Department of Biochemical, Physiological and Nutritional Sciences, Section of Medical Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Policlinico Universitario, Messina, Italy. gcampo@unime.it

Abstract

The adenosine 2A receptor (A(2A)R) is greatly involved in inflammation pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis. By interacting with A(2A)R, the purine nucleoside adenosine acts as a potent endogenous inhibitor of the inflammatory process in a variety of tissues. Hyaluronan (HA) fragments act to prime inflammation via CD44 and the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inhibition/stimulation of A(2A)R modulates the inflammation cascade primed by small HA fragments in mouse articular chondrocytes. 6-mer HA treatment induced up-regulation of CD44, TLR4 and A(2A)R mRNA expression and the related protein levels, and NF-kB activation, that in turn increased TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and production. Treatment with a selective (2)A adenosine receptor agonist (2-phenylaminoadenosine) enhanced A(2A)R increase, as well as the inhibition of CD44 and TLR4 activity using two specific antibodies abolished up-regulation of CD44 and TLR4, and significantly reduced, especially by antibody inhibition, NF-kB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, the exposure of chondrocytes to A(2A)R specific interference mRNA (A(2A)R siRNA) enhanced HA 6-mer induced NF-kB activation and inflammatory cytokine increase. Finally, the use of an exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) siRNA and a specific PKA inhibitor showed a predominant EPAC involvement in the mediation of the anti-inflammatory activity exerted by A(2A)R stimulation. These data suggest that HA depolymerization occurring during inflammation contributes to priming of the inflammatory cascade, while endogenous adenosine, by exerting anti-inflammatory response via A(2A)R, could be a modulatory mechanism that attempts to attenuate the inflammation process.

PMID:
22796382
DOI:
10.1016/j.matbio.2012.07.001
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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