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Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012 Dec;23(6):872-7. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2012.06.001. Epub 2012 Jul 14.

Animal production for efficient phosphate utilization: from optimized feed to high efficiency livestock.

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Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.


Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for livestock but its efficiency of utilization is below 40%, contributing to environmental issues. In this review, we summarize recent approaches to optimize P availability in livestock diets and improve its utilization efficiency. Phase feeding could potentially reduce P excretion by 20%. Addition of phytase enzymes to diets increased P availability from 42 to 95%. Low phytate transgenic plants and transgenic animals increased P availability by 14% and 52-99%, respectively. In practice, a combination of phase feeding and enzymes has the highest potential for P reduction but legislation and ethics implications will prevent using transgenic animals in the short term. Functional and nutritional genomics may provide tools to improve efficiency in the future.

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