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Anal Chem. 2012 Aug 7;84(15):6326-30. doi: 10.1021/ac301525q. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Development of xMAP assay for detection of six protein toxins.


xMAP technology was used for simultaneous identification of six protein toxins (staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B, cholera toxin, ricin, botulinum toxin A, and heat labile toxin of E. coli). Monoclonal antibody-conjugated xMAP microspheres and biotinilated monoclonal antibodies were used to detect the toxins in a sandwich immunoassay format. The detection limits were found to be 0.01 ng/mL for staphylococcal enterotoxin A, cholera toxin, botulinum toxin A, and ricin in model buffer (PBS-BSA) and 0.1 ng/mL for staphylococcal enterotoxin B and LT. In a complex matrix, such as cow milk, the limits of detection for staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B, cholera toxin, botulinum toxin A, and ricin increased 2- to 5-fold, while for LT the detection limit increased 30-fold in comparison with the same analysis in PBS-BSA. In the both PBS-BSA and milk samples, the xMAP test system was 3-200 times (depending on the toxin) more sensitive than ELISA systems with the same pairs of monoclonal antibodies used. The time required for a simultaneous analysis of six toxins using the xMAP system did not exceed the time required for ELISA to analyze one toxin. In the future, the assay may be used in clinical diagnostics and for food and environmental monitoring.

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