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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76(6):1122-7. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

Anethum graveloens flower extracts inhibited a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by blocking iNOS expression and NF-κB activity in macrophages.

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Division of Biological Science and Technology, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea.


Inflammation is a system used by a host to defend against the presence of bacteria, viruses, or yeasts. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the plasma membranes of macrophages are activated when they recognize the molecular structure of a virus or bacterium. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer cell-wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, initiates an inflammatory process via TLR4. We investigated the effect of the extract of Anethum graveloens flowers (AGFs) on LPS-mediated inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells. The extract markedly suppressed nitric oxide generation in a concentration-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the mRNA expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also inhibited iNOS protein levels in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, AGF decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. AGF inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, an upstream molecule of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, and thus inhibited NF-κB activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that AGF exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by inhibiting iNOS expression and blocking the NF-κB pathway.

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