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Methods Mol Biol. 2012;903:319-28. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-937-2_22.

Protocol for the molecular detection of antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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Queensland Paediatric Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Queensland Children's Medical Research Institute, Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre, Children's Health Services, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.


Gonorrhoea is no longer an easily treatable ailment but rather is now a challenging disease in terms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with treatment options rapidly diminishing. The causative agent of gonorrhoea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has managed to develop resistance to almost every single drug used against it with the sole exception of extended spectrum cephalosporins. The situation is further exacerbated by the fact that not only are the rates of gonococcal infections on a steady rise globally, but tracking AMR is being undermined by the growing popularity of molecular methods at the expense of traditional bacterial culture in diagnostic laboratories. Recently, concerns have been raised over the emergence of a multi-resistant gonococci and the potential for untreatable gonorrhoea. Maintaining optimal epidemiological surveillance of gonococcal AMR remains an important aspect of gonorrhoea control. The development of molecular tools for tracking AMR in N. gonorrhoeae has the potential to further enhance such surveillance. In this chapter, we discuss nucleic acid amplification-based detection of AMR in gonorrhoea with a particular emphasis on chromosomal-mediated resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics.

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