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Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:948098. doi: 10.1155/2012/948098. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

Macrophages in tumor microenvironments and the progression of tumors.

Author information

1
Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China.

Abstract

Macrophages are widely distributed innate immune cells that play indispensable roles in the innate and adaptive immune response to pathogens and in-tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can be activated by a variety of stimuli and polarized to functionally different phenotypes. Two distinct subsets of macrophages have been proposed, including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages express a series of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules, such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α, iNOS and MHCI/II. In contrast, M2 macrophages express a wide array of anti-inflammatory molecules, such as IL-10, TGF-β, and arginase1. In most tumors, the infiltrated macrophages are considered to be of the M2 phenotype, which provides an immunosuppressive microenvironment for tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages secrete many cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, which promote tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Recently, it was also found that tumor-associated macrophages interact with cancer stem cells. This interaction leads to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. So mediating macrophage to resist tumors is considered to be potential therapy.

PMID:
22778768
PMCID:
PMC3385963
DOI:
10.1155/2012/948098
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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