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Sensors (Basel). 2012;12(5):6269-81. doi: 10.3390/s120506269. Epub 2012 May 11.

Wireless biosensor system for real-time L-lactic acid monitoring in fish.

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Department of Ocean Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology, Konan 4-5-7 Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan.


We have developed a wireless biosensor system to continuously monitor L-lactic acid concentrations in fish. The blood L-lactic acid level of fish is a barometer of stress. The biosensor comprised Pt-Ir wire (φ0.178 mm) as the working electrode and Ag/AgCl paste as the reference electrode. Lactate oxidase was immobilized on the working electrode using glutaraldehyde. The sensor calibration was linear and good correlated with L-lactic acid levels (R = 0.9959) in the range of 0.04 to 6.0 mg · dL(-1). We used the eyeball interstitial sclera fluid (EISF) as the site of sensor implantation. The blood L-lactic acid levels correlated closely with the EISF L-lactic acid levels in the range of 3 to 13 mg · dL(-1) (R = 0.8173, n = 26). Wireless monitoring of L-lactic acid was performed using the sensor system in free-swimming fish in an aquarium. The sensor response was stable for over 60 h. Thus, our biosensor provided a rapid and convenient method for real-time monitoring of L-lactic acid levels in fish.


fish; interstitial fluid; l-lactic acid; monitoring; wireless

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