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Sensors (Basel). 2012;12(5):5246-72. doi: 10.3390/s120505246. Epub 2012 Apr 26.

Performance evaluation of fusing protected fingerprint minutiae templates on the decision level.

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Norwegian Biometric Laboratory, Gjøvik University College, Teknologivegen 22, N2802 Gjøvik, Norway.


In a biometric authentication system using protected templates, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected template that can be directly compared. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a decision testing whether both identifiers are derived from the same biometric characteristic. Compared to an unprotected system, most existing biometric template protection methods cause to a certain extent degradation in biometric performance. Fusion is therefore a promising way to enhance the biometric performance in template-protected biometric systems. Compared to feature level fusion and score level fusion, decision level fusion has not only the least fusion complexity, but also the maximum interoperability across different biometric features, template protection and recognition algorithms, templates formats, and comparison score rules. However, performance improvement via decision level fusion is not obvious. It is influenced by both the dependency and the performance gap among the conducted tests for fusion. We investigate in this paper several fusion scenarios (multi-sample, multi-instance, multi-sensor, multi-algorithm, and their combinations) on the binary decision level, and evaluate their biometric performance and fusion efficiency on a multi-sensor fingerprint database with 71,994 samples.


decision level fusion; fingerprint; minutiae template; performance evaluation; pseudonymous identifier; template protection

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