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J Chiropr Educ. 2012 Spring;26(1):40-6.

Effect of implementing instructional videos in a physical examination course: an alternative paradigm for chiropractic physical examination teaching.



This study examined the effect of implementing instructional video in ophthalmic physical examination teaching on chiropractic students' laboratory physical examination skills and written test results.


Instructional video clips of ophthalmic physical examination, consisting of both standard procedures and common mistakes, were created and used for laboratory teaching. The video clips were also available for student review after class. Students' laboratory skills and written test results were analyzed and compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc multiple comparison tests among three study cohorts: the comparison cohort who did not utilize the instructional videos as a tool, the standard video cohort who viewed only the standard procedure of video clips, and the mistake-referenced video cohort who viewed video clips containing both standard procedure and common mistakes.


One-way ANOVA suggested a significant difference of lab results among the three cohorts. Post hoc multiple comparisons further revealed that the mean scores of both video cohorts were significantly higher than that of the comparison cohort (p < .001). There was, however, no significant difference of the mean scores between the two video cohorts (p > .05). However, the percentage of students having a perfect score was the highest in the mistake-referenced video cohort. There was no significant difference of written test scores among all three cohorts (p > .05).


The instructional video of the standard procedure improves chiropractic students' ophthalmic physical examination skills, which may be further enhanced by implementing a mistake-referenced instructional video.


Association Learning; Chiropractic; Instructional Films and Videos; Physical Examination

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