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Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:315941. doi: 10.1155/2012/315941. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

Danger signals activating the immune response after trauma.

Author information

1
Division of Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Abstract

Sterile injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that resembles the host response during sepsis. The inflammatory response following trauma comprises various systems of the human body which are cross-linked with each other within a highly complex network of inflammation. Endogenous danger signals (danger-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs; alarmins) as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) play a crucial role in the initiation of the immune response. With popularization of the "danger theory," numerous DAMPs and PAMPs and their corresponding pathogen-recognition receptors have been identified. In this paper, we highlight the role of the DAMPs high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) as unique dual-function mediators as well as mitochondrial danger signals released upon cellular trauma and necrosis.

PMID:
22778496
PMCID:
PMC3388465
DOI:
10.1155/2012/315941
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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